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It makes sense. He was a two-time Gr1 winner on grass in Argentina and retired on a victorious note on dirt in the G1 Pacific Classic.

Le Premier Alcibiade

Her second dam was unraced, but is a full sister to Terra Incognita, winner of the Alcibiades. While she was unraced, she is a half sister to Miss Loren, champion older mare in Argentina. A field of 16 — although only 11 will run — have been entered in the race for older males. Opt In By checking this box, you agree to receive Breeders' Cup marketing emails. More News. November 21, Read more.

Current Participations

November 19, One night during preparations for the expedition, the hermai, heads of the god Hermes on a plinth with a phallus, were mutilated throughout Athens. This was a religious scandal and was seen as a bad omen for the mission. Plutarch explains that Androcles, a political leader, used false witnesses who accused Alcibiades and his friends of mutilating the statues, and of profaning the Eleusinian Mysteries.

Alcibiades was suspicious of their intentions, and asked to be allowed to stand trial immediately, under penalty of death, in order to clear his name. And we cannot fix the exact point at which our empire shall stop; we have reached a position in which we must not be content with retaining but must scheme to extend it, for, if we cease to rule others, we are in danger of being ruled ourselves. Nor can you look at inaction from the same point of view as others, unless you are prepared to change your habits and make them like theirs. As Alcibiades had suspected, his absence emboldened his enemies, and they began to accuse him of other sacrilegious actions and comments and even alleged that these actions were connected with a plot against the democracy.

His property was confiscated and a reward of one talent was promised to whoever succeeded in killing any who had fled. Alcibiades, however, foreseeing that he would be outlawed, gave information to the friends of the Syracusans in Messina, who succeeded in preventing the admission of the Athenians. In the debate at Sparta over whether to send a force to relieve Syracuse, Alcibiades spoke and instilled fear of Athenian ambition into the Spartan ephors by informing them that the Athenians hoped to conquer Sicily, Italy, and even Carthage. As for democracy, the men of sense among us knew what it was, and I perhaps as well as any, as I have the more cause to complain of it; but there is nothing new to be said of a patent absurdity—meanwhile we did not think it safe to alter it under the pressure of your hostility.

Alcibiades served as a military advisor to Sparta and helped the Spartans secure several crucial successes. He advised them to build a permanent fort at Decelea, just over ten miles from Athens and within sight of the city.

The Peloponnesian War

The move was devastating to Athens and forced the citizens to live within the long walls of the city year round, making them entirely dependent on their seaborne trade for food. Seeing Athens thus beleaguered on a second front, members of the Delian League began to contemplate revolt.

On his arrival in the Persian court, Alcibiades won the trust of the powerful satrap and made several policy suggestions which were well received.


According to Thucydides , Alcibiades immediately began to do all he could with Tissaphernes to injure the Peloponnesian cause. At his urging, the satrap reduced the payments he was making to the Peloponnesian fleet and began delivering them irregularly. Lastly, and most importantly, he told the satrap to be in no hurry to bring the Persian fleet into the conflict, as the longer the war dragged out the more exhausted the combatants would become. This would allow the Persians to more easily conquer the region in the aftermath of the fighting.

Most of the officers in the Athenian fleet accepted the plan and welcomed the prospect of a narrower constitution, which would allow them a greater share in determining policy.

According to Thucydides, only one of the Athenian Generals at Samos, Phrynichus, opposed the plan and argued that Alcibiades cared no more for the proposed oligarchy than for the traditional democracy. Phrynichus, fearing that Alcibiades if restored would avenge himself upon him for his opposition, sent a secret letter to the Spartan Admiral, Astyochus, to tell him that Alcibiades was ruining their cause by making Tissaphernes the friend of the Athenians, and containing an express revelation of the rest of the intrigue.

Alcibiades responded in kind, sending to the authorities at Samos a letter against Phrynichus, stating what he had done, and requiring that he should be put to death. This also Astyochus revealed to Alcibiades who informed the officers at Samos that they had been betrayed by Phrynichus. Despite these events, Pisander and the other envoys of the conspirators arrived at Athens, and made a speech before the people.

Pisander won the argument, putting Alcibiades and his promises at the center. The Ecclesia deposed Phrynichus and elected Pisander and ten other envoys to negotiate with Tissaphernes and Alcibiades.

Tissaphernes would not make an agreement on any terms, wanting to follow his policy of neutrality. Although the envoys were angered at the audacity of the Persian demands, they nevertheless departed with the impression that Alcibiades could have brought about an agreement among the powers if he had chosen to do so. In spite of the failure of the negotiations, the conspirators succeeded in overthrowing the democracy and imposing the oligarchic government of the Four Hundred, among the leaders of which were Phrynichus and Pisander.

At Samos, however, a similar coup instigated by the conspirators did not go forward so smoothly. Samian democrats learned of the conspiracy and notified four prominent Athenians: the generals Leon and Diomedon, the trierarch Thrasybulus, and Thrasyllus, at that time a hoplite in the ranks. With the support of these men and the Athenian soldiers in general, the Samian democrats were able to defeat the Samian oligarchs who attempted to seize power there.

The army, stating that they had not revolted from the city but that the city had revolted from them, resolved to stand by the democracy while continuing to prosecute the war against Sparta.

tétralogie - Translation into English - examples French | Reverso Context

Then he sailed to retrieve Alcibiades and returned with him to Samos. The aim of this policy was to win away Persian support from the Spartans, as it was still believed that Alcibiades had great influence with Tissaphernes. At his first speech to the assembled troops, Alcibiades complained bitterly about the circumstances of his exile, but the greatest part of the speech consisted of boasting about his influence with Tissaphernes.

The primary motives of his speech were to make the oligarchs at Athens afraid of him and to increase his credit with the army at Samos. Upon hearing his speech the troops immediately elected him General alongside Thrasybulus and the others. In fact, he roused them so much that they proposed to sail at once for Piraeus and attack the oligarchs in Athens. Presently Alcibiades sailed to Tissaphernes with a detachment of ships. According to Plutarch, the supposed purpose of this mission was to stop the Persian fleet from coming to the aid of the Peloponnesians.

The next significant part he would play in the war would occur at the Battle of Abydos. Alcibiades had remained behind at Samos with small force while Thrasybulus and Thrasyllus led the greater part of the fleet to the Hellespont. During this period, Alcibiades succeeded in raising money from Caria and the neighboring area, with which he was able to pay the rowers and gain their favor.

While Alcibiades was still en route, the two fleets clashed at Abydos, where the Peloponnesians had set up their main naval base. The battle was evenly matched, and raged for a long time, but the balance tipped towards the Athenians when Alcibiades sailed into the Hellespont with 18 triremes. Belief in a purely objective understanding of such concepts as justice, love, and virtue, and the theme of, above all, self-knowledge that he hammered into his pupils, were the basis of his teachings.

His logic placed particular emphasis on rational argument and the quest for general definition, traits visible in the writings of his pupil Plato, and later in Aristotle. Through the writings of these two particular philosophers, Socrates, one could claim, profoundly affected the entirety of philosophical, including Christian, thought to come.

Courtesans, or Hetairai, with whom Socrates and his contemporaries associated, were much more than simply high-class prostitutes, and may be better compared with the grandes horizontales of the 19th century, whose salons and admirers were famed. According to ancient literary sources, and scenes from vase paintings, hetairai were intelligent, but more unusually for a woman, educated.

They cultivated whatever beauty they possessed and were well-dressed.

They had few restrictions on their lives, an existence that contrasted sharply with the oppressive lives of married women in Athens. Athenaeus, in Deipnosophistae explained hetaira were trained in the art of conversation, musical entertainment including singing, dancing and playing instruments. They, however, would not have had financial security or any legal or family protection. As the paid escorts of aristocratic men hetairai attended symposiums, drinking parties that combined political and philosophical discourse.

At these symposiums they met the most influential and powerful citizens in Athens. There she educated young women, Plutarch, Life of Pericles, She was no less a threat than Socrates, who was later persecuted and killed for his radical thought. Aspasia was acknowledged by Socrates as a teacher of rhetoric, and women in her house were clearly taught more than sexual skills. Perhaps surprisingly one must ignore much of what we know about Socrates in looking at this painting.

It is difficult to imagine his becoming this enraged, and certainly his becoming morally outraged, by a visit to a brothel.