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In respect to its food-producing purpose, gardening is distinguished [ by whom? Farming occurs on a larger scale, and with the production of salable goods as a major motivation. Gardening happens on a smaller scale, primarily for pleasure and to produce goods for the gardener's own family or community. There is some overlap between the terms, particularly in that some moderate-sized vegetable growing concerns, often called market gardening , can fit in either category. The key distinction between gardening and farming is essentially one of scale; gardening can be a hobby or an income supplement, but farming is generally understood [ by whom?

One distinction is that gardening is labor-intensive and employs very little infrastructural capital , sometimes no more than a few tools, e. By contrast, larger-scale farming often involves irrigation systems , chemical fertilizers and harvesters or at least ladders , e. However, this distinction is becoming blurred with the increasing use of power tools in even small gardens. Monty Don has speculated on an atavistic connection between present-day gardeners and pre-modern peasantry. The term precision agriculture is sometimes used [ by whom? Gardening is effectively scaled up to feed entire villages of over people from specialized plots.

A variant is the community garden which offers plots to urban dwellers; see further in allotment gardening. There is a wide range of garden ornaments and accessories available in the market for both the professional gardener and the amateur to exercise their creativity. These are used to add decoration or functionality, and may be made from a wide range of materials such as copper, stone, wood, bamboo, stainless steel , clay , stained glass , concrete, or iron. Examples include trellis , garden furniture , statues , outdoor fireplaces , fountains , rain chains , urns , bird baths and feeders , wind chimes , and garden lighting such as candle lanterns and oil lamps.

The use of these items can be part of the expression of a gardener's gardening personality. Garden design is considered to be an art in most cultures, distinguished from gardening, which generally means garden maintenance. Garden design can include different themes such as perennial, butterfly , wildlife , Japanese , water , tropical , or shade gardens. In Japan, Samurai and Zen monks were often required to build decorative gardens or practice related skills like flower arrangement known as ikebana.

In 18th-century Europe, country estates were refashioned by landscape gardeners into formal gardens or landscaped park lands, such as at Versailles , France, or Stowe , England.

PDF The Gardener: Part Two

Today, landscape architects and garden designers continue to produce artistically creative designs for private garden spaces. Garden pests are generally plants , fungi , or animals frequently insects that engage in activity that the gardener considers undesirable. A pest may crowd out desirable plants, disturb soil, stunt the growth of young seedlings, steal or damage fruit, or otherwise kill plants, hamper their growth, damage their appearance, or reduce the quality of the edible or ornamental portions of the plant. Aphids , spider mites , slugs , snails , ants , birds , and even cats are commonly considered to be garden pests.

Because gardeners may have different goals, organisms considered "garden pests" vary from gardener to gardener. Tropaeolum speciosum , for example, may be considered a desirable and ornamental garden plant, or it may be considered a pest if it seeds and starts to grow where it is not wanted. As another example, in lawns , moss can become dominant and be impossible to eradicate. In some lawns, lichens , especially very damp lawn lichens such as Peltigera lactucfolia and P. There are many ways by which unwanted pests are removed from a garden.


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The techniques vary depending on the pest, the gardener's goals, and the gardener's philosophy. For example, snails may be dealt with through the use of a chemical pesticide, an organic pesticide, hand-picking, barriers, or simply growing snail-resistant plants. Pest control is often done through the use of pesticides , which may be either organic or artificially synthesized.

Pesticides may affect the ecology of a garden due to their effects on the populations of both target and non-target species. For example, unintended exposure to some neonicotinoid pesticides has been proposed as a factor in the recent decline in honey bee populations.


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Other means of control include the removal of infected plants, using fertilizers and biostimulants to improve the health and vigour of plants so they better resist attack, practising crop rotation to prevent pest build-up, using companion planting , [23] and practising good garden hygiene, such as disinfecting tools and clearing debris and weeds which may harbour pests. Garden guns are smooth bore shotguns specifically made to fire.

These guns are especially effective inside of barns and sheds, as the snake shot will not shoot holes in the roof or walls, or more importantly injure livestock with a ricochet. They are also used for pest control at airports , warehouses , stockyards , etc. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Practice of growing and cultivating plants. For planting a plain-text to be encrypted by an adversary, see Gardening cryptanalysis. For persons who garden, see Gardener.

Main article: History of gardening. Main article: List of garden types. Main article: Garden ornament. See also: Landscape architecture. Main article: Garden guns. Gardening portal Agriculture portal.

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The forest-garden farms of Kandy, Sri Lanka. Retrieved 4 June Frances Lincoln Publishers. The Cottage Garden. Jacqui Hurst. Dorling Kindersley. Illustrated History of Landscape Design. John Wiley and Sons. Chelsea Green Publishing. American Community Garden Association. Archived from the original on 4 December Social Policy and Administration. Routledge Communication Series. Mahwah, New Jersey: Routledge published Retrieved 21 January The number-one leisure activity in the United States is gardening. Joe's Allotment: Planning and planting a productive plot.

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Random House. Retrieved 20 January I suppose it is an atavistic connection with the land and the completely honourable peasant mentality, that was lost in Britain with the Industrial Revolution, yet persists in our gardens and allotments. Retrieved 29 March Retrieved 28 May Archived from the original on 18 September Retrieved Marlin Firearms Forum. Outdoor Hub LLC. Retrieved 17 September Horticulture and gardening.

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Fungicide Herbicide Index of pesticide articles List of fungicides Pesticide Plant disease forecasting Pruning Weed control weed remover. Garden tourism. Categories : Horticulture and gardening. Hidden categories: Articles with short description Use dmy dates from December All articles that may contain original research Articles that may contain original research from January All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from January Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from January Commons category link is on Wikidata Articles with Curlie links.

The rest is paved, or else planted with species that need no or little supplementary watering. The choice of plants had to be made within a range defined by the ability to tolerate — or enjoy heat, a degree of drought, and alkaline soils. The latter immediately rules out the majority of Australian native plants, including nearly all the banksias Banksia praemorsa is one of the few exceptions, and we have one that is coming along beautifully.

Just what thrives under these conditions is not always easy to tell, and the available books are no help at all, not even Lord and Willis , splendid companion though that is. For example, some plants of the humid tropics are remarkably drought tolerant.


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Frangipani is one example, but then it is a semi-succulent. These are the horticultural and aesthetic constraints. Then there was the constraint of availability, which I will come to in a moment. But there was also a basic choice of style, which we pondered long, and for a time, indecisively. Rejecting the extremes, there are still three basic styles in Fremantle. They overlap, but they are nevertheless quite distinct in their feeling. One is Victorian; this is a solidly Victorian city, with many buildings from the s, and a few that are older.

They are nearly all either limestone, or cement render usually painted in pale or stone colours. Date palms, Norfolk Island Pines, Moreton Bay Figs, roses, buffalo grass lawns, a few hardy shrubs, a few roses, a planting scheme that is basically symmetrical, and a bed of annuals for colour. These gardens look pretty good; they suit the houses, and of course the trees and shrubs are mature and handsome. The roses do remarkably well and are very popular everywhere. The Mediterranean garden overlaps the Victorian; add olives, figs, mulberries, lemons, Arbutus unedo known in Australia as the Irish Strawberry Tree; it does extend to Ireland, but is typically found in the maquis of southern Europe , Cork Oaks, oleanders, rosemary, lavender, planes, Italian Cypress.

Many of these plants came by way of the Cape, whence came the freesias, which grow wild and flower freely all over the limestone hills. So, alas, did fennel and Pennisetum alopecuroides , although the latter has very attractive plumes in flower and we have used it at the front of a border, where it often provokes admiration from people who think they are seeing it for the first time, although it grows wild all over nearby Buckland Hill. Of course the limestone suits all these plants very well, and they can all survive the summer with little supplementary water.

Fremantle is one of those relatively few towns in Australia which still relates to its natural environment, as do parts of Sydney on the North Shore. Its bones are good and they show in limestone outcrops, hills, cliffs, cuttings.

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Cantonment Hill and the grounds of John Curtin High School still carry Melaleuca pubescens , here known as the Rottnest Island Tea-tree, with its dark umbrella, and the Swan River Cypress, Callitris preissii , equally black-green, superb against the clear blue skies. Melaleuca huegelii flowers prolifically in early summer, with a profusion of creamy spikes. Acacia rostellifera is common, wind-sheared into a dense mound which protects the soil and moulds the landscape.

leondumoulin.nl/language/textbook/the-person-and-work.php Templetonia retusa puts out its brick-red pea flowers in late winter, and the Rottnest daisy Brunonia australis has sky blue flowers in spring. The natural environment of dune plants also survives along the coast and was restored at Bathers Beach near Arthur Head, with Bicentennial funding.